What are the dictionaries? What are the dictionaries of the Russian language?
You rarely meet a man who at least once in his life did not look in the dictionary. With their help, we not only learn the meaning of certain words, we choose synonyms or antonyms, but we also learn a lot of new things.
Let's talk about what kind of dictionaries are, what their classification is and recall the main "linguistic reference books" of the Russian language.
The science of dictionaries
Lexicography - one of the sections of linguistics, dealing with the problems of studying and compiling dictionaries. It is she who deals with the classification, puts forward requirements for the design of articles and their content.
The scientists who make up the dictionaries call themselveslexicographers. It is important to note that dictionaries do not have authors, there are only compilers. This is due to the fact that they are compiled by means of special cards, on which the meanings of words and their forms are fixed. In this case, the compiler can use both the cards he personally collected and the cards collected by a whole staff of linguists.
Next, we'll look at what kind of dictionaries of the Russian language, we know who made them.
Classification of modern dictionaries
All dictionaries are divided into encyclopedic and philological, or linguistic.
Encyclopedic dictionaries provide information on various events. A vivid example of such a dictionary can serve as BES - the Great Encyclopedic Dictionary. Encyclopedic also includes dictionaries of terms.
What are the linguistic dictionaries? The given group of dictionaries deals directly with words and their interpretation. They are also divided into bilingual and monolingual.
Bilingual dictionaries contain the words of the Russian language and their equivalent in a foreign language.
Monolingual dictionaries are divided into groups depending on their purpose.
The most used types of dictionaries
What are the dictionaries by type? Among monolingual dictionaries it is necessary to allocate the following:
- Explanatory, in which an interpretation of a word is given, its meaning is described.
- Dictionary of Neologisms - contains a list of not so long-established words and their interpretation.
- Foreign words - captures not only the meaning of the word, but also notes from what language it came to us.
- Synonyms - helps to choose synonyms. It lists a list of similar words to the main, most used in this synonymic series.
- Antonimov - contains antonymic pairs of words.
- Omonimov - describes the main homonymic pairs, while indicating the significance of a particular word, especially its use in speech.
- Phraseological dictionary - contains a list of all known phraseological units and gives them an interpretation.
- Grammar dictionaries - indicate the grammatical meaning of a word - to which part of the speech it relates, what are its main features.
- Orthographic - helps to avoid the most frequent mistakes when writing a particular word.
- Orthographic words - fix the correct stress in words.
- Word-building - show what basis was used to form the word, what parts it consists of (prefixes, suffixes, roots).
- Dictionary epithets - helps to choose the most successful epithets for a particular noun.
- Etymological dictionary - tells the story of the origin of the word.
Famous dictionaries of the Russian language
Let's now discuss what are the dictionaries of the Russian language.
- The most well known is the "Explanatory Dictionaryliving great Russian language ", compiled by the famous scientist VI Dal. This guide will make about 200 thousand words. Despite the fact that it has been more than a century, it is read by one of the most complete and used in our time.
- The second not less important "Explanatory dictionary", compiled by another well-known linguist SI Ozhegov.
- "Orphoepic Dictionary" was published by two different linguists - RI Avanesov and IL Reznichenko. Both dictionaries have an impressive list of words and will be useful not only for students and students.
- We also note the "Dictionary of Synonyms" by ZE Aleksandrova and the "Dictionary of Antonyms" edited by LA Vvedenskaya.
What are the dictionaries yet? To learn the history of many words familiar to us, one can turn to the work of N. M. Shanskii "Brief etymological dictionary of the Russian language", and "The phraseological dictionary of the Russian language" AI Molotkov will help you to understand the phraseology and their meaning.
It is also worth mentioning the Dictionary of the Difficulties of the Russian Language edited by the famous Russian philologist, author of many monographs and a collection of Russian language rules by D. E. Rozental and M. A. Telenkova.
The books listed by us are no longer onea decade, but they are also all ready to come to our aid and share their knowledge. Now you know what dictionaries are. The list presented by us is very brief, but even these books are enough to always remain a literate and educated person.
The structure of the dictionary entry
In conclusion, I would like to add a few words about the structure of the dictionary article.
Any dictionary entry begins with a header word, which is often written in capital letters and bold.
We note at once that the words used in dictionariesare always written correctly, so if you doubt the correctness of writing a particular word, it is not necessary to refer to the spelling dictionary. It is enough to open any available at your fingertips.
In most dictionaries, the correct accent is also indicated. This information will be kept by virtually all Russian dictionaries. What other notes are there?
After the headline,to which part of the speech it belongs. Then its meaning is described or a list of synonyms, antonyms - everything depends on the type of the dictionary. The dictionary article ends with examples of usage - quotations from books, magazines. In case this word has particularities in use, at the end of the article this information is also indicated.
We have analyzed what lexicography is, what dictionaries and their meanings are, list the main types, and also list the most useful for any educated person.
Remember, if you have difficulty writing or pronouncing a word, you can not find the best one, you just need to open one of the books listed by us.