The Treaty of Tordesillas: history, date, essence
Unusual for that era agreement was signedin 1494 between Spain and Portugal - the Treaty of Tordesillas. It was an international agreement on the rights to new lands, discovered by Christopher Columbus. To understand what the essence of the Treaty of Tordesillas, it is necessary to consider the events that preceded it.
At the end of the XV century, Portugal and Castile wereindependent states, but their royal houses were closely linked by ties of kinship and shared political interests. This connection was interrupted in 1469, when the heiress of the Castilian throne, Princess Isabella became engaged to her cousin Ferdinand, who subsequently inherited the crown of the kingdom of Aragon. The combination of crowned persons began the state of Spain.
This union played a significant role in the political arena, making a significant advantage in the direction of Aragon. And now the question was, how will relations between Portugal, Castile and Aragon develop in the future?
Battle for the throne
As it turned out, the King of Portugal also had his ownThe views of Isabella, or rather the throne of Castile. He agreed with his stepbrother Princess Enrique IV in advance, and when they did not succeed, he married his daughter. Together they are trying to deprive Isabella of the right to succession to the throne. But the princess could fight back. In 1471, a bloody war began for the Castilian heritage, which lasted 8 years.
In 1479 the royal couple Ferdinand and Isabelladefeated the troops of the Portuguese King Afonso V in the battles of Toro and Albuer. And in the village of Alcazovas, a convention was signed that establishes rules for the relationship between Castile and Portugal.
The Alcázos Agreement
And although the long-awaited peace reigned, the discussionproblems of the succession to the throne will continue as a key to further overseas expansion. Queen Isabella believed that the Atlantic is always a safe way to put pressure on Portugal. The signed pact was the predecessor of the Treaty of Tordesillas and greatly contributed to the strengthening of the young state of Spain.
Negotiations led to the fact that Portugal was rentingall claims to Castile. She, in turn, almost gave primacy to the sea, leaving behind only the Canary Islands. The Pope blesses the agreement of the two states and fixes for Portugal all the lands that are south of the Canary Islands.
At the same time, the western direction was not documented in any way and was devoid of attention from both sides. It is this omission that will call for the Tordesillas Treaty of 1494.
Discoveries of Christopher Columbus
Being a stubborn and ambitious man, he almost threatened the Alkhazovas agreement by making revolutionary geographical discoveries.
Thanks to his father-in-law, Columbus had access toauthorial sea charts, where it was a question of lands located to the west of Europe. He has a ripe plan: through the Atlantic Ocean to pave the way to India, without bypassing Africa. With his plan, he turns to the Portuguese King Joao II and fails, his arguments are taken for imagination and sent back home.
After 7 years, Columbus meets in Spain withthe spiritual father of Queen Isabella, who later was able to influence the decision of the monarchs. And in 1492, the seafarer signed an agreement with the Spanish crown, having received at the disposal of 3 ships. On May 28, he left the Palos harbor, and on October 12 landed on the island of Gvanagani and proclaimed the land the property of Spain. Then followed the opening of Cuba and Haiti.
On the way back to Spain shipstravelers fall into a big storm. As a result of the caravel, Columbus entered the Portuguese harbor. The navigator decides to pay his respects to the Portuguese monarch, although there is an opinion that he simply wanted to boast of his discovery. At the audience, the king asked him questions, trying to understand where Columbus was and whether he violated the Alkasovas treaty with Spain. His discoveries aroused the interest and suspicion of Joao II. And he equips the fleet to control the route to the west of the Atlantic Ocean, and also sends his agents to the Spanish court.
Although the Alcázos Pact has created all the conditions forhegemony of Portugal, the discovery of Columbus make a significant gap in this agreement. Portugal began to make claims on the open land. In response, the Spanish king is trying to secure international support. He immediately appeals for help to the Pope, who was the absolute authority and authority of that time. In April 1493, Alexander VI publishes a series of messages confirming Spain's rights to new lands that were thought to have been in India.
The Spaniards come to the understanding that in connection with the new reality it is necessary to work out a new agreement specifying the division of the overseas lands.
Line of the Tordesillas Treaty
Columbus made a proposal to draw a linefrom the north pole to the south pole, which would pass through the Canary Islands and the Green Cape Peninsula. Everything that was to the west of the line should belong to Spain. Thus, the navigator encouraged Ferdinand and Isabella, as well as the pope, to a new section of the world. The Pontiff takes this proposal into account in its bullae (messages), but does not indicate a particular meridian, which leads to confusion.
Both the royal couple of Spain and the King of Portugal understood that the Pope's injunctions exacerbated the situation. They decide to move to direct negotiations without touching his bulls.
In September 1493, Columbus again went toOpen lands to compile an accurate map of their location. She would have allowed to continue negotiations with Joao II. Manipulating the data, Columbus stated that, moving west, he did not cross the dividing line established by the Treaty of Alcázos and was above it.
After receiving an accurate card, the Spaniards continued to negotiate.
Divided the world for two
Stakeholders tried to avoid a military conflict and used all sorts of diplomatic and reconnaissance channels. After all, it was about lands that no one really knew.
The process of negotiations with the participation of two embassieslasted for 15 months. In parallel with the question of the division of the Atlantic Ocean, the political issues of the succession of Portugal, where Isabella and Ferdinand pursued their own interests, were discussed.
Finally, having met in the Spanish townTordesillas, the delegations concluded a number of agreements. And on June 7, 1494, the Treaty of Tordesillas was signed, dividing the Atlantic Ocean and part of the land into spheres of influence.
It was not easy to reach agreements, constantlythere was a military threat. What is the Treaty of Tordesillas, and what consequences provoked his conclusion? With his help it was possible to maintain peace for almost two centuries. It was composed in such a way that it perfectly resolved the problems that existed then.
Why it was necessary to supplement the Treaty of Tordesillas?
When, it would seem, controversial issues were resolved,passion still continued to boil. Monarchs of both states assiduously collected all kinds of information about maritime campaigns of the opposing side. They also agreed to send a joint scientific commission so that its participants could see how the dividing line passes. But the science and technology of that time did not have such opportunities.
Since the exact boundary was determinedIt is impossible, in subsequent years the Treaty of Tordesillas was interpreted in different ways. At the beginning of the XVI century, this develops into a new problem. And with the aim of solving it after the expeditions of Fernand Magellan (when new information and knowledge appeared), the Saragossa Treaty will be concluded.