Removal of the prostate: consequences of surgery, reviews
Men's health is an important aspect not only offor the physical condition, but also for the psyche. Change in the functioning of the genitalia is noted in urological diseases. The most common of these are prostate gland pathologies. Prostate provides normal ejaculation in men and helps to block the exit from the bladder during ejaculation. Diseases of the prostate gland can be associated with inflammatory, hyperplastic and oncological processes. Often the treatment is to remove the prostate. Despite the radical nature of the method, in some cases the operation is considered the only option.
Indications for the removal of the prostate
Removal of the prostate is performed in those cases,when conservative therapy is powerless. In most cases, this is an oncological process. Sometimes prostatectomy is performed with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The increase in the organ due to inflammation does not pertain to the reasons for the operation. The following indications for the removal of the prostate are distinguished:
- The initial stages of prostate cancer.
- Calculous prostatitis - accompanied by a violation of urination and hematuria.
- Benign hyperplasia of the organ - adenoma.
Cancer is considered the main indication for removalorgan. Prostatectomy is performed only at stages 1 and 2 of the disease. In these cases, the oncological process is limited to the tissue of the prostate gland. If the prostate removal is not performed in a timely manner, the cancer can spread throughout the body. The operation is done for men younger than 70 years, since somatic pathologies are contraindications to its conduct.
Adenoma of the prostate gland leads toincrease in the body. As a result of this disease, sexual weakness and impaired urination are noted. With progression of benign hyperplasia and lack of efficacy from therapeutic methods of treatment, prostatectomy is performed.
Methods of surgical intervention
There are several ways to remove the prostate. The choice of method depends on the prevalence of pathology. Removal of the organ can be complete and partial. Options for surgery include:
- Transurethral resection of the prostate. It is characterized by partial removal of tissues, which is produced through the urethra. Resection is performed laparoscopically. It is performed with benign prostatic hyperplasia.
- Induction of the prostate. Such a surgical intervention involves dissecting the tissues of the organ. It allows you to expand the lumen of the urethra and prevent the compression of the urethra. The prostate gland is cut, but the organ is not removed.
- Radical prostatectomy. It is carried out with tumor formations and expressed benign hyperplasia. The gland is removed together with the lymph nodes. Access to the organ can be different - perineal, supra-and retropubic. Open surgery is dangerous for the development of complications.
- Laser intervention. It is considered more preferable, since it reduces the risk of bleeding. Prostate removal by the laser is performed with benign gland hyperplasia. There are several methods for carrying out this manipulation. Among them - vaporization (evaporation), enucleation and laser resection of adenoma.
Currently, lesstraumatic surgical procedures. These include laser removal of adenoma, transurethral resection. Nevertheless, it is impossible to replace an open operation with other methods in some cases.
Removal of prostatic adenoma: consequences of surgical treatment
Removal of the prostate gland is a radicalA method of treatment, which is accompanied by a number of health risks. These include complications of the early and late postoperative period. Among them - a violation of the process of urination and ejaculation. After the removal of the prostate adenoma with a laser and the method of transurethral resection, the risk of these complications decreases, compared with open surgery.
This operation is a stress for everythingorganism. Therefore, after it, there are violations of the genitourinary system. Normally, they gradually pass. In 2-10% of cases violations remain. The negative consequences of prostatectomy include:
- Urinary incontinence.
- Absence of ejaculate during sexual intercourse.
- Erectile disfunction.
- Inflammatory processes in the small pelvis.
To prevent these complications, in the early daysafter removal of the prostate, the patient's condition is monitored. At discharge, the recommendations of the urologist should be followed. This will help reduce the risk of late complications.
Early postoperative period
During the first days after prostatectomythe patient's condition is severe. This is due to blood loss and changes in the work of the genito-urinary organs. At this time, there is a risk of developing the following complications:
- Infection of the wound and penetration of microbes. The patient's condition is severe, fever, local inflammation and signs of irritation of the peritoneum.
- Bleeding - occurs in 2.5% of cases.
- Obturation of the urethra with blood clots, the emergence of strictures.
- Relaxation of the sphincter of the bladder. Normally this symptom passes by itself. Relaxation of the muscles leads to urinary incontinence.
Diagnosis of early complications is carried out by medical personnel in a hospital. In the case of development of acute conditions, the surgeon's assistance is required.
Recovery period after prostatectomy
The early postoperative period isa few days (5-7 days). During this time the patient's condition is normalized, there is an independent urination. However, full recovery after removal of prostate cancer or adenoma can occur only after a few months. It depends on the age of the patient, the characteristics of his body and the procedure for conducting the operation. To speed up rehabilitation and reduce the risk of late complications, the following requirements must be observed:
- Do gymnastics to strengthen the pelvicmuscles. Exercises by the method of Kegel help to bring the process of urination back to normal. Gymnastics consist of alternating tension and relaxation of the pubic muscle.
- Vibration therapy and massage.
- Application of an electrostimulator or vacuum-erector.
After prostatectomy, you can not lift heavyobjects weighing more than 3 kg. Also it is not recommended to engage in sedentary work and drive a car. Food should be divided, with the predominance of easily digestible carbohydrates and proteins.
Restoration of urination after prostatectomy
The removal of the prostate often leads to disruptionprocess of urination. In the first days after surgery, a catheter is inserted into the urethra. It is necessary for the evacuation of fluid from the bladder. After a few days or weeks, the catheter is removed. Because of the weakness of the pelvic floor muscles, urination is difficult to control. But gradually the process is getting better. To speed up rehabilitation, it is necessary to do gymnastics, sanatorium-and-spa treatment is useful.
Intimate life after surgery to remove the prostate
After 3 months after prostatectomy, the patient canto start a sexual life. By this time, the pelvic muscles should be restored. In some cases, patients experience retrograde ejaculation. Seed fluid is secreted, but it enters the lumen of the bladder. Such a phenomenon is not dangerous, but it hinders conception. To get rid of this symptom, apply vibromassage and vacuum-erectors. With erectile dysfunction prescribe drugs containing sildenafil. These include medicines "Cialis", "Viagra".
Reviews of doctors about the operation
Doctors say that prostatectomy isA complex operation, which should be carried out only in cases of necessity. With prostate adenoma, it is not recommended to remove the organ completely, it is better to perform a resection or laser vaporization. Recovery after prostatectomy occurs gradually, so it is worth to follow the instructions of the urologist and be patient.