Psychological theories of memory. general characteristics
Memory is a unique phenomenon thatallows a person not to remain constantly in the state of a newborn. Therefore, its full vital activity will be possible only if this mental process is functioning correctly.
There are a large number of hypotheses and currents,which can help explain the phenomenon of memory. They formed over many years of its study. But there is no single theory of memory, but one can single out the following:
- information cybernetic;
All psychological memory theories develop in two major directions.
First, associative.It is based on the following postulate: if certain formations in the human psyche arise in consciousness simultaneously or one after another, a clear associative relationship is formed between them. When any of these elements reappear, then a complete picture of the entire system of elements is called in the mind.
Secondly, the theory of activity, according to which,it is memory that can be the factor that determines the formation of all processes. First, connections will be formed between the material to be memorized and the actions that the person produces. In this activity, memorization is defined, as well as the storage and reproduction of the memorized information.
Let us consider in more detail the basic theory of memory.
The physical theory of memorywas built on the following postulates:
- a nerve impulse that passes through a special group of nerve cells, can cause mechanical and electrical changes at the contact site;
- they leave behind themselves physical traces;
- thanks to these changes, a repetition of the pulse along the same path is ensured;
- as a result, the material is memorized.
Theories of memory also includechemical concept. It is based on the following provisions:
- any information can be remembered due to chemical changes in nerve cells;
- this is done under the influence of external stimuli;
- as a result, the rearrangement of protein molecules in neurons begins, especially in nucleic acid molecules;
- DNA - the carrier of genetic memory, RNA - individual.
Theories of memory were supplementedbiochemical concept. Its main postulates are the following:
- there is a two-stage nature of memorization;
- at the initial stage in the brain, a short-term, every second reaction occurs, causing a system of physiological changes;
- they have a reversible character and act as a mechanism of short-term memorization;
- at the second stage (biochemical) new protein substances (proteins) are formed;
- at the last stage irreversible changes occur in the neurons, they form a long-term memory.
Memory theories includephysiological theory, which is based on the concept of IP. Pavlova.The main postulate is that there are special patterns in the work of GNI, and in the basis of the act of memory there is only a conditioned reflex. Thanks to this, there is a formation of links between new information and the content that was previously recorded in memory.
Information Cybernetic Theory of MemoryWhen the computertechnique and development of programming. This required constant search of ways, how will the machine take, process, and store information. As a result, technical and algorithmic modeling of the memory processes that occur in the human brain was required.
Many concepts have been formulated, and each has its own "rational grain".