Principles of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child. Declaration of the Rights of the Child, 1959
The Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1959 for the first timefixed the basic and mandatory for all requirements for the treatment of children. The resolution spelled out ten fundamental principles, which will be discussed in detail in this article.
About the Rights of the Child
The Declaration consists of a preamble and a number ofprinciples. The preamble refers to the faith of the United Nations in the basic human rights, the value and dignity of his personality. The UN is determined to promote public progress and improve living standards in every possible way.
The organization refers to the Declaration of Rightsman, adopted in 1948. It is this document that is recognized as the main source and legal basis for the implementation of the 1959 Declaration of the Rights of the Child. The United Nations takes into account that the child is a creature physically and mentally immature, in need of constant care and protection. That is why the duties of adults include helping children, their upbringing and education. At the end of the document, the famous saying is declared: "Humanity is obliged to give the child the best that it has."
The Declaration of the Rights of the Child contains tenfundamental and binding rules. In the first principle, all those freedoms and rights are fixed for children, as indicated in the declaration of 1948. Every child is equally entitled irrespective of color, language, sex, race, religious or political beliefs, social or property status, etc. Thus, the Declaration excludes any form of discrimination.
In the second principle, the norm is fixed, according towhich, the child should be provided with high-quality social protection. However, it does not matter how exactly this protection can be implemented. It is only necessary that children are provided with favorable conditions for physical, mental or spiritual development. The child must grow in dignity and freedom.
The third principle of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child is the right of every born person to a citizenship and a name. All these children are provided with these elements from birth - without any exceptions.
The UN Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1959the need for quality social security for all children without exception. This norm is fixed in the fourth principle of the document in question. What is meant by social security? The Declaration speaks of caring for the growth and development of the child. Medical care, food, housing, education and entertainment are the main constituents here. Special care is needed for children that were born physically or mentally defective. The Declaration speaks of a special regime and special care for such children.
The sixth principle of the international instrument fixesthe need for love and understanding in relation to the child. Only parental love will help the harmonious development of personality. Thus, in the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, not only the material but also the moral obligations of parents, guardians and guardians are fixed.
The right to education
The seventh principle of the Declaration of the Rights of the Childestablishes the rights of children to education. The International Act states that at least the initial stages of educational organizations should be mandatory and free of charge.
The processes of education and upbringing are positiveaffect the overall cultural development of the individual. Man gets the opportunity to develop his abilities and judgments. Social and moral responsibility is formed, as a result of which the individual becomes a full member of society.
Responsibility for education Declarationlays on the parents or legal representatives of the child. Particular attention is paid to entertainment and games, which also have a positive impact on the formation of the individual.
The eighth principle of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child (year 1959) establishes the priority of children in providing medical or any other assistance to the population. The child should be given first aid.
Principle 9 secures the protection of children from negligenceor tough attitude, rudeness, exploitation etc. Children should not work until they reach the appropriate age. A child is prohibited from engaging in activities that interfere with his education, health, physical, moral or mental development.
What fixes the last of the ten principlesDeclaration of the rights of the child? The provision proclaims the fencing of children from activities or activities that could encourage a religious, racial, national or other form of discrimination. Children should be educated in a spirit of tolerance, mutual understanding, friendship, universal brotherhood and peace. Every child is obliged to understand that human energy should be directed to serve other people.
Geneva Declaration on Children
Ten principles of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child are notare comprehensive international norms that regulate the protection of children. There are other normative acts that also consolidate and proclaim the interests and freedoms of children throughout the world.
One of the first declarations about children was the Genevathe convention adopted in 1924. This document consisted of five principles that prohibited child forced labor, slavery, trafficking in children and prostitution of minors. In the Declaration, though rather simple, but at the same time, very precise formulas are fixed. A hungry child should be fed; the patient is cured;
The homeless should be given shelter, and the orphan - support. The Convention enshrined the famous principle that the child must grow in an atmosphere of love and care.
On some provisions of the Geneva Convention, the Declaration of Children's Rights of 1959 was built.
The UN Convention
The Convention on the Rights of the Child was adoptedUnited Nations in 1989. At the same time, work on the document began in 1946 - when the UN established a special children's fund. The Convention has been developed for a long 30 years. Periodically, the text of the document was amended, the norms changed many times, some provisions were eliminated.
The author of the project is officially PolishProfessor A. Lopatok. The document itself consists of three parts and 54 articles. The first part establishes general provisions, the second - the rights of the child, and the third regulates the procedural and legal problems of compliance with the Convention by States. Much attention in the document is paid to the processes of education and upbringing of children. In 1993 the Convention was adopted by the Russian Federation. A little later, the Declaration of the Rights of the Child was adopted.
Rights of the child in Russia
The Russian Federation has ratified a majorityfrom the existing international instruments on the rights of children. Russian laws declare the supremacy of human rights and freedoms. It is forbidden to restrict the rights to education and training. Every child has the right to professional employment or education, rest and health.
There are measures in Russia to protect children. Thus, national federal laws protect children from propaganda of inequality, intolerance, armed conflicts, violence, etc.
Do you have national law onprotection of children any problems with international treaties? It is possible to recall, perhaps, the last resonant case. More recently, in a number of international instances, it was ruled that the Federal Law of the Russian Federation "On the prohibition of the promotion of homosexuality among minors" contradicts the tenth principle of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, the UN Convention and some other acts on children. The ECHR and the UN are sure that the law engenders intolerance, namely homophobia. Still, international norms are aimed at protecting children from all forms of discrimination. Domestic legislators referred to the constitutional norm on morality (Article 55). Undoubtedly, there were other debates, but the presented case was the most vivid and revealing.