Paint: types of paint for interior and exterior works
Paint is one of the very first and at the same timetime of basic finishing materials used by man. The desire to draw appeared in people already from ancient times. This is evidenced by the painting of the walls and ceilings of the caves in which the ancient man lived. Already at that time he strove to decorate the gray stones, using ocher, coal and animal blood.
Millennia passed, but the desire to paintpeople did not decrease at all. They tend to change the color of almost anything that comes under their hands. Painted cars and houses, hair, pet hair, etc. That is why recently the number of varieties of this material has increased several times.
No paint can not do without any repairs. But everyone who does it, dreams that decent kind of a wall or ceilings have kept for a long time, years that way on twenty. That is why it is important to know what kinds of paints exist, what characteristics they have. This will allow you to choose the right finishing material that will last as long as possible.
Paint manufacturers include in their productsat least three components. It is a pigment, an astringent and a solvent. The color of the paint depends on the first of these components. The astringent does not allow to scatter the applied layer after it has dried. The solvent is designed to dilute the too thick paint, which makes it easier to apply. Often, a variety of fixatives, stabilizers and other additives are added to the formulation of the mixture.
Depending on the characteristics and quality, there are different types of paint. Let us consider them in more detail.
What is the color? The types of this finishing material can be divided into universal, as well as for internal and external works. All of them have some differences in their characteristics. So, the paints used for outdoor works have a high resistance to moisture, sunlight, temperature fluctuations and other external factors. At the same time, they are very toxic and therefore prohibited for indoor use.
To repair apartments and rooms you need a different kind ofpaints. It should be designed for internal work. Such material is extremely sensitive to the influence of external factors, therefore it is not used for exterior finishing of houses.
The third type is universal paint. Types of the first two finishing materials, as mentioned above, have different characteristics. Universal paint can be used not only for interior, but also for outdoor works. It is water-based and therefore non-toxic.
According to the characteristics of the solvent included in the composition, all the paints are divided into:
This finishing material is made on the basis of white spirit, drying oil, turpentine, gasoline or alcohol. All these substances are organic solvents.
On what basis is the manufactured by youoil paint? GOST will help you figure it out. It regulates the brands of this finishing material, depending on the type of foaming agent used. So, the symbols MA-021 indicate that the oil paint contains natural linseed oil. If MA-025 is a combined one, etc.
The main advantage of such colors lies in theirresistant waterproof layer. But there is a shortage of these materials. Drying, oil paint separates all organic solvents in it. In an enclosed area, this can lead to intoxication.
Used oil paint for wood, metal, cement plaster, gypsum putty and many other surfaces. You can apply it even on a layer of water-emulsion.
Oil paint for wood can be used as a primer. To do this, it is additionally diluted with turpentine, white spirit, kerosene or other solvents.
In earlier times, oil paint was usedeverywhere. It was used for finishing surfaces. However, today more widely used are other, more modern materials. The fact is that the oil paint can dry up to several days, thus releasing so much harmful substances that people get a headache. In addition, the applied layer does not allow the surface to "breathe". This leads to the appearance of cracks and peeling on it after a short period (from three to five years). In addition, the drying oil turns yellow, the surface loses its original color.
However, despite such significantimperfections, and today the oil paint continues to be produced. GOST strictly certifies this finishing material, denoting its various types by combinations of numbers and letters. Buyers purchase this inexpensive and affordable paint for doors and window frames, radiators and other surfaces. Apply it and as a primer.
This finishing material is made withmixing of fillers and pigments with water. And today it is increasingly used for finishing apartments. The positive side of this paint is that when it dries it does not emit toxic substances. An important advantage of emulsion paint is also its environmental friendliness.
This material is easy to use. Finally not dry, it is easily washed off from hands and tools.
What are the emulsion paints?
This finishing material is divided into several types. Among them are paints:
- polyvinyl acetate;
It is usually used for the finalinterior finishes. This is an environmentally friendly material that is in great demand among consumers. Water-based paint, the price of which is quite affordable for all segments of the population, is applied to almost any surface. In doing so, it forms an air-permeable polymer film. Steam can pass through it. But she will not miss the liquid. The positive side of this material is its explosion and fire safety.
In contrast to water-based paints, water-dispersion paints are more moisture resistant. This makes it much more likely to wipe the surface on which they are applied with a damp cloth.
These finishes are very elastic anddurable. Such characteristics give them acrylic resins. These substances are the main astringent component of the composition. Acrylic types of paint have a high cost, and therefore not every buyer stops their choice. However, this is a wonderful finishing material. After complete drying, it is able to withstand even the most severe frosts. Acrylic paints have good water resistance. And this indicator grows with the increase in the volume of acrylic resins in their composition. These colors are beautifully tinted. In addition, they form a surface layer that can last many years.
This is the most expensive kind of all water-basedfinishing materials. In the composition of such a paint, which has increased water resistance, elasticity and strength, is latex. You can apply this material to cover different surfaces. It can be both walls and ceilings, which will dry in 20-60 minutes.
Polyvinyl acetate paints
Produce them on the basis of PVA. And consumers such a water-based paint is familiar from the times of the USSR.
Polyvinyl acetate finishing material is environmentally friendly, light-resistant and most affordable. However, this paint can not often be washed. She very quickly gets off the surface.
This finishing material is relativelynew and relatively expensive. In the role of an astringent, silicone resins appear in it. This component gives the paint a high water resistance. To buy a finishing material based on silicone can be used for painting any surfaces, including metal.
This finishing material has in its compositionpigments and varnishes. Under different names this paint can be realized. Types of enamel coatings include several different types in their list. This is nitro-enamel and enamel paints, as well as alkyd enamels. After their drying, a matte or glossy glossy film with high strength is formed on the surface. Several layers of such a paint will provide good protection of the coated material from various external influences - sunlight, temperature difference, etc. The enamel has a high drying speed (15-45 min.) And sensitivity to mechanical damage.
These finishing materials differ from those,They are used for internal works by their maximum resistance to external environmental influences. You need to choose them depending on the properties of the surface being treated. For wood, brick and concrete you need your own paint.
Types of finishing materials considered for facade works are divided into:
Silicate exterior paint for exterior useis made on the basis of polymer dispersions and liquid glass. This material is very durable and reliable. It is maximally vapor-and air-permeable, and due to its alkaline reaction does not allow the appearance of mold and fungi on the walls.
Acrylic paints for the facade have significant differences from the interior. They have greater resistance to UV rays and atmospheric influences, as well as high spreadability and minimal spattering.
To the most progressive and modern, you cancarry silicone paints. They have the best characteristics of silicate and acrylic finishing materials - resistance to ultraviolet and elasticity.
Modern manufacturers also offerpaints facade perchlorovinyl. They are recommended for outdoor use. Such paints are obtained by dissolving perchlorovinyl in a solvent or xylene. The temperature of the mixture is maintained at a level of seventy degrees. Solvents contained in this composition, when dried, evaporate, and a sufficiently hard decorative protective layer appears on the surface to be treated.
Perchlorovinyl paints do not allow moisture to enter the interior. They are made with high color tone saturation, which lasts from three to four years.
Trademark of Tikkurila
To date, consumers are pushing forfacade paints increased requirements. This does not allow producers to stand still. They develop such finishing materials, which not only give the surface a particular color, but also protect it from dirt and moisture, ultraviolet and temperature differences. All these properties have a paint "Tikkurila."
A trademark of the same name offering its owngoods in the market of paint and varnish building materials, has already more than a hundred-and-forty-year history. The products of this company are familiar to customers due to their wide assortment and excellent quality.
It's no secret that the coloring of the facade is a matterexpensive. That is why the finishing material should have such properties that would allow it to permanently and reliably protect the surface. Such characteristics are the paint "Tikkurila." It is resistant to the action of alkali, to shock loads and abrasion, has an exceptional coating ability and high vapor permeability. Such quality characteristics allow this finishing material to provide an excellent appearance and reliable protection of the facade for ten years or more.