Meteorological phenomena: examples. Dangerous meteorological phenomena
Meteorological phenomena areA natural phenomenon, dangerous to human life and capable of causing significant damage to its economy. Today, such climatic anomalies happen every day in different parts of the Earth, so it's not out of place to learn more about them and to get acquainted with the basic rules of behavior during cataclysms.
Dangerous natural phenomena of category A1, group 1
This group includes climatic anomalies that can threaten human security and its property in the event of long duration or high intensity.
Examples of hazardous meteorological phenomena of category A1:
A1.1 - Extremely strong wind. Its impulses can reach speeds above 25 m / s.
А1.2 - Hurricane. This is a separate type of wind anomaly. The speed of gusts can reach up to 50 m / s.
A1.3 - Flurry. A sharp increase in wind (short-term). Gusts can reach up to 30 m / s.
A1.4 - Tornado. This is the most destructive and dangerous for human life natural phenomenon. A strong wind is localized into a funnel that is directed from the clouds to the ground.The following meteorologically dangerous phenomena of this category are associated with precipitation:
A1.5 - A heavy downpour. Intense rain can not stop for a very long time. The amount of precipitated precipitation exceeds 30 mm in 1 hour.
A1.6 - Strong mixed rain. Precipitation falls in the form of rain and sleet. A decrease in air temperature is noted. The amount of precipitation can reach 70 mm in 12 hours.
A1.7 - Extremely heavy snow. This is solid precipitation, the amount of which within 12 hours may exceed the mark of 30 mm.
The following meteorological phenomena are a separate line:
A1.8 - Continuous downpour. The duration of heavy rain is at least 12 hours (with minor interruptions). The amount of precipitation exceeds the threshold of 100 mm.
A1.9 - The Great City. Its diameter should be from 20 mm or more.
The second group of hazardous natural phenomena of category A1
This section includes such climatic anomalies as blizzard, fog, severe icing, abnormal heat, etc.
Meteorological hazardous natural phenomena of the second group of category A1:
A1.10 - A strong snowstorm. The wind carries snow at a speed of 15 m / s and above. At the same time, the range of visibility is about 2 m.
A1.11 - Sandstorm. The wind carries dust and soil particles at a speed of 15 m / s and above. Range of visibility - no more than 3 m.A1.12 - The fog-haze. Serious turbidity of the air is observed due to a large accumulation of water particles, combustion products or dust. The range of visibility is less than 1 m.
А1.13 - Strong frost deposit. Its diameter (on the wires) is not less than 40 mm.
The following meteorological phenomena of category A1 are associated with temperature changes:
А1.14 - Extreme frost. Values vary from geographical location and time of year.
A1.15 - Abnormal cold. In winter, during 1 week, the air temperature is kept below the meteorological norm by 7 degrees or more.
A1.16 - Extremely hot weather. The maximum temperature depends on the geographical location.
A1.17 - Abnormal heat. In the warm season for 5 days or more the temperature is kept above the norm by at least 7 degrees.
A1.18 - Fire situation. Its indicator refers to the fifth class of danger.
Dangerous phenomena of nature category A2
This group includes agrometeorological anomalies. Any phenomenon of this category is capable of causing huge damage to agriculture.
Meteorological natural phenomena related to type A2:
A2.1 - Frosts. The temperature of the air and soil is sharply reduced during harvesting or active vegetation of crops.
A2.2 - Overmoistening of the soil. The soil at a depth of 100 mm is visually viscous or sticky (for 2 weeks).
A2.3 - It's dry. It is characterized by humidity of air less than 30%, temperature above 25 degrees and wind from 7 m / s.
A2.4 - Atmospheric drought. Absence of precipitation at an air temperature of 25 degrees for 1 month.A2.5 - Soil drought. In the upper soil layer (20 cm), the moisture coefficient is less than 10 mm.
A2.6 - Anomalously early appearance of snow cover.
A2.7 - Freezing of the soil (top layer up to 20 mm). Duration - from 3 days.
A2.8 - Severe frost in the absence of snow cover.
A2.9 - Weak frost with a high snow cover (more than 300 mm). The temperature is not lower than -2 degrees.
A2.10 - Ice cover. Frosty crust with a thickness of 20 mm. The duration of the soil cover is at least 1 month.
Rules of conduct for hazardous meteorological phenomena
During climatic phenomena it is important to keep calm and prudent, not to panic.
Wind-driven meteorological natural phenomena(examples: a storm, a hurricane, a tornado) are dangerous for human life only in the immediate vicinity of the source of anomaly. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to hide in specially equipped shelters underground. You can not approach the windows, since the risk of injuries to glass fragments is high. It is forbidden to be in the open air, on bridges, near power lines.During abnormal snow driftsto limit movement along the carriageway and the countryside. It is also recommended to stock up on food and water. Do not stand near power lines and steep roofs.
When flooding, take a safe placeon a hill and mark it for later detection by rescuers. In one-storey premises it is not recommended, as the water level can rise abruptly at any minute.
Record weather anomalies
Over the past 20 years, nature has presentedhumanity has many surprises. These are all kinds of dangerous meteorological phenomena (examples: a huge hail, a record strong wind, etc.), which killed people and caused maximum damage to the economy.
In May 1999, the state of Oklahoma wasrecorded the strongest gust of wind on the scale of Fagit. The tornado belonged to category F6. The wind speed reached 512 km / h. Tornadoes demolished hundreds of houses and killed dozens of people.
In the summer of 1998, about 30 m of snow fell in the state of Washington on the famous mountain Mount Baker. Precipitation went on for several months.
The highest temperature indicators were recorded in Libya in September 1992 (58 degrees Celsius).
The biggest hail was in the summer of 2003 in Nebraska. The diameter of the largest specimen was 178 mm, and its fall rate was about 160 km / h.
The rarest meteorological phenomena
In 2013, the morning after the DayThanksgiving the visitors of the Grand Canyon witnessed a unique natural phenomenon called "inversion." A thick fog descended into the crevices, forming a whole waterfall of clouds.In the same 2013, the people of Ohio sawthemselves in the courtyard of a huge part of the territory, located around their city, right up to the Canadian border. This phenomenon is called superrefraction, when the light rays bend under the air pressure and reflect objects located far away over huge distances.
In 2010, people in Stavropol could observecolored snow. The city was covered with brown and purple snowdrifts. The snow was not toxic. Scientists have determined that the sediments have colored in the upper atmosphere, mixing with the particles of volcanic ash.