Liquid cytology - what is it? Liquid cytology of the cervix: interpretation of the results, reviews
Liquid cytology is the newestThe method of cytological studies used for suspected dysplasia or cancer. This method allows to identify oncological pathologies in the early stages of development, which greatly increases the chances of successful treatment.
How is the diagnosis, what is this - fluid cytology? To understand what an innovative method of revealing ailments is, one must have an idea of the technique for carrying it out.
After taking the smear, the biomaterial is placed in thea certain environment. Next, a centrifuge is activated, in which cell washing takes place. They gather in a bundle and form a very even layer. After this procedure, the conclusion of the doctor will be accurate and very informative, in comparison with the usual cytological method, when the collected material is applied to the glass for analysis.
For liquid technology, PAP tests are used. This type of examination helps to clearly see the cells. The application of this method helps to mechanically separate epithelial cells from various impurities, contaminants. A new technique can reduce the likelihood of false diagnosis at times.
Indications for cervical examination
Fluid cytology of the cervix isA study that allows you to choose the most effective method for treating cancer. This technology allows you to identify malignant cells, as well as reduce the degree of cancer.
Indications for the survey are:
- Violations of the menstrual cycle. Too short and too long menstruation, delay.
- When planning a pregnancy.
- Prolonged intake of hormonal drugs.
- Appearance of excreta without cause.
- Before installing vaginal contraceptives.
- With viral genital pathologies.
According to the indications, the doctor takes biomaterial fromcervical canal and sends for diagnosis. For maximum informativeness, the material for liquid cytology is best given in the first ten days after the end of the month. The result can be negative or positive. The latter speaks about the presence of atypical cells, which can lead to the development of oncology.
Advantages of the new survey method
The use of an innovative method of examination allows one to obtain the most accurate results of cell research on the presence or absence of diseases. This method has many advantages:
- The preparation for analysis is prepared very quickly.
- The material is of improved quality.
- Materials can be stored for a long time. The use of special solutions allows preserving the samples taken under favorable conditions. This is necessary to transport smears to the laboratory.
- From the obtained biomaterial it is possible to prepare several cytological preparations.
- You can prepare a mono-layered smear.
- The standard staining method is used for the diagnosis.
New technology for cancer screening, in comparisonwith other methods, allows to improve the quality of the smear, as well as conduct additional diagnostic procedures without a re-examination of the gynecologist.
For the timely prevention of screeningspend once every six months. This method helps prevent early development of cervical cancer, as well as diagnose precancerous, background processes in the cervical canal.
How to prepare for the procedure?
Liquid cytology - what is it? How to prepare for it? This technology is the fastest method of research of the material, helping to get maximum information, to see any, even the smallest deviations in cervical cells. A smear for analysis is taken during the examination of patients on a gynecological chair.
Before you give the smear, you should prepare. For this it is recommended to exclude any sexual relations two days before the test. Also, douches should not be used, candles and ointments should be used. It is recommended to stop taking contraceptives and anti-inflammatory drugs. For a couple of hours before taking the smear should refrain from urinating.
The analysis is not taken during menstruation, in the presence of secretions, itching, inflammation of the genitals.
The technique of sampling of a smear for research is simple. During the examination, the gynecologist clears the cervix with a cotton swab, and then with a special brush, performs the sampling of the material for analysis and applies it to the glass. The results of the survey are ready in about a week.
Cytological smear makes it possible to determine,what size and shape pathological cells have, their location. All this helps to identify cervical diseases, including cancer and precancerous ailments.
When using liquid cytology, the brushtogether with the collected biomaterials is placed in the stabilizing solution. So the cells remain for a long time, which makes it possible to conduct a study and accurately diagnose.
Study of the biomaterial of the cervix uteri
The results of liquid cytology of the cervix canbe both positive and negative. That the doctor could precisely define or determine presence of a cancer, he estimates a status of an epithelium. In total there are five stages of diseases, in each of which the cells have a characteristic appearance:
- Norm. If the results of cytology are negative, then in the structure of the cells there are no violations.
- In the second stage, the cells have insignificantdeviation from the norm. This stage can talk about inflammation, the presence of infectious diseases. For an accurate diagnosis it is necessary to conduct additional methods of examination, such as biopsy, colposcopy, etc.
- Single cells have abnormal changes. At the same time, the result of the diagnosis should be re-examined.
- The structure of cells varies, they become precancerous.
- Detection of a large number of atypical cells. This indicates an initial degree of development of oncology.
The interpretation of the results is carried out according to the Bethesda system. The final diagnosis is established on the basis of the information obtained on changes in the nucleus of the cell.
Diagnostic results and their interpretation
Decoding of the results of liquid cytology involves the use of abbreviations.
The abbreviation ASC-US is observed with changesflat cells of the epithelium. This type of indicators occurs in women aged 45 years due to a decrease in the level of the hormone estrogen. The decoding of the liquid cytology of the cervix is as follows:
- The results with AGC indicate the detection of changescylindrical cells, which are an indicator of inflammatory diseases. For example, results with this abbreviation can occur with vaginosis.
- AIS shows that there is a lot of cylindrical epithelium in the smear, the patient has cancer.
- ASC-H says that in the cells there are structural disorders that indicate a precancerous condition and the initial stage of oncology.
- LSIL this result suggests the presence of small atypical cells not cancerous type.
When appearing in the smear of flat cells, the abbreviation HSIL is put.
According to reviews, fluid cytology helps quicklyand accurately diagnose. Reagents provide the opportunity to obtain maximum information when conducting a survey with a minimum number of false results of tests.