How to treat diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus is a disease that develops as a result of absolute or relative insulin deficiency. Diabetes leads to disruption of carbohydrate metabolism in the body, and then to the disruption of all systems, damage to blood vessels and organs. The disease is very dangerous and requires immediate treatment.
General principles of treatment
As a rule, the treatment of diabetes is reduced to the treatment of symptoms, and not to the elimination of the disease itself. The main parameters for the treatment of diabetes are:
- Compensation of the exchange of carbohydrates in the body
- Preventive treatment of complications
- Body weight correction
- Informing the patient
Compensation of carbohydrate metabolism occurs in two ways: a method of providing cells with insulin, different methods, depending on the type of diabetes, and a method of uniform flow of carbohydrates into the body, which is the result of dieting. Informing the patient plays an important role in its treatment. Since a sick person must know and understand what a disease is, what it is dangerous about,how to treat diabetes mellitus and how to control glucose levels in the blood independently, what needs to be done in some cases, and how to follow the correct diet.
One of the most important parts of diabetes treatment is diet and a balanced diet. If you do not follow the correct diet, then compensate for carbohydrate metabolism adequately fail. It is also worth noting that in case of diabetes of the second type, in order to compensate for carbohydrate metabolism, a diet will suffice, but in case of diabetes of the first type, diet is strictly necessary. The main goal of the diet is the proper intake and distribution of carbohydrates in the body. The diet should be uniform, distributed in fats, proteins and calories. Easily digestible carbohydrates should be completely excluded from the patient's diet, with the exception of hypoglycemia. In diabetes of the second type, correction of body weight is also necessary.
The basic term in diet therapy for diabetes is the so-called bread unit, which is about 10-12 grams of carbohydrates. For diabetics, there are special tables that describe the products in terms of bread units.The number of bread units consumed by the patient per day should be equal, and should not exceed 12-25 per day, depending on how much the patient weighs and what physical loads he receives.
In one sitting, the number of used bread units should not exceed 7, it is also important to distribute the units in such a way that they would be approximately the same in terms of lunch, breakfast and dinner. Alcohol in diabetes is strictly prohibited. The patient must keep his own food diary in which he will record the number of bread units eaten per day. This serves to properly distribute doses of glucose-lowering drugs and insulin by a doctor. It is also important to prevent diabetes. When treating diabetes so that there is no recurrence, it is also necessary to follow a diet.
This is a group of drugs prescribed to patients with the second group of diabetes. Patients with the first group, these drugs do not help.
Sugar-lowering drugs are divided into 2 groups:
The mechanism of sugar absorption of sulfa drugs is to reduce the concentration of glucose in the liver, and increase insulin sensitivity to improve its action.These drugs are Tolbutamide, Carbutamide, Glipizid. This group of drugs is used for ineffective diet therapy.
The second group of drugs - Biguanides, the mechanism of their lowering of sugar is the increased utilization of glucose by muscle tissue, as well as the stimulation of insulin secretion. Biguanides cause loss of appetite and weight loss. Treatment begins with the minimum dose of the drug, increasing them in the absence of effect. These are drugs - Glucophage, Silubin. Also, often the biguanides are combined with sulfanilamide preparations, with not enough good effect of the latter. When taking these drugs, people with changes in the myocardium should be careful because they can cause tissue hypoxia. In certain cases, the patient may decrease the effectiveness of the sugar-reducing drugs. This is a signal to start insulin therapy.
Treatment of diabetes with insulin
The main objective of insulin treatment is the maximum compensation of carbohydrate metabolism. For people with the first type of disease, insulin is vital, and for people with the second type of diabetes, it is used in some situations.Indications for insulin therapy:
- Type 1 diabetes
- Ketoacidosis, diabetic coma
- Pregnancy and childbirth with diabetes
- Decompensation of type 2 diabetes
- The absence of any effects in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, in other ways.
- High weight loss in diabetes
The correct selection of insulin therapy is carried out by a doctor, because different people need different doses and types for their duration. If there is no excess weight, and there is no emotional overload, basically insulin is prescribed at the rate of 0.5-1 units per kilogram of weight per day. Insulin injections are designed to imitate natural secretion, so the following measures should be implemented:
- The amount of insulin injected should be sufficient for the utilization of glucose received.
- Insulin should mimic pancreatic secretion.
- Insulin should mimic pancreatic secretion peaks.
Therefore, there is insulin therapy, in which, in the morning and in the evening, long-acting insulin doses are administered, and after a meal, which contains carbohydrates, short-acting doses. The insulin dose may vary depending on the amount of bread units eaten.It is very important to know the individual need for insulin. Since you can easily calculate yourself the desired dose of insulin in combination with bread units. There is also a combined insulin intake method in which several types of insulin are administered at once. Plus in this, is to reduce the number of injections per day, and the minus is not sufficiently accurate imitation of pancreatic secretion.
In order to be constantly aware of the amount of sugar in the blood, there is a special device - a blood glucose meter, with which you can quickly and accurately measure the level of sugar. There is also a popular treatment for diabetes, but not all prescriptions are safe and correct, so consult with your doctor before taking something. There are some features in the treatment of diabetes of different types.
Type 1 Diabetes - Treatment
The main task in the treatment of diabetes mellitus of the first type is to create the right relationship between absorbed carbohydrates, physical activity and the amount of insulin injected. The following parameters are also monitored:
- Diet therapy
- Physical exertion
- Insulin therapy
Type 2 Diabetes - Treatment
- Diet therapy
- Vegetable sugar-reducing drugs
- Alcohol intake is not stronger than 9 degrees
- Oral hypoglycemic drugs
- Sulfonamide derivatives
- Prandial Glycemic Regulators
- Glycosidase inhibitors
- Insulin replacement therapy
In the treatment of type 2 diabetes can also be applied metabolic surgery, the so-called gastric and biliopancreatic bypass.
Diabetes - treatment of folk remedies
There are several famous recipes for traditional medicine:
- Infusion of bay leaf, normalizes blood sugar levels.
- Lowers blood sugar collection of herbs from blueberries and bean leaves
- Amaranth infusion helps normalize dietary blood sugar
- Grind buckwheat in a coffee grinder, pour kefir, insist, and eat instead of cereal, as well as drink tea from calendula, thyme and chicory
- Take a piece of mummy, dissolve in half a glass of water, drink in the morning on an empty stomach, a course of treatment for 10 days, a break of 7 days and repeat again.
I hope you take from this article all useful for yourself, and will know how to treat diabetes. Once again I remind you that the treatment is carried out only under the careful supervision of a doctor, do not self-medicate and do not get sick!