How to lay warm floors?
There is an opinion that the “warm floor” system is subject only to professionals - they say, this is a product of uneasy characteristics and an ordinary citizen cannot cope with them. In fact, this is a myth that we will gladly dispel in our article. After all, self-laying warm floor available to anyone who decides to experiment. So, how to lay warm floors?
To begin with, there are several systems for assembling underfloor heating. Try to choose the most convenient - those that are designed according to the type of designer and are assembled from individual elements in a specific sequence. Such an assembly ultimately ensures the strength and reliability of the connections. How to install a warm floor? Let's look at the rules, features and sequence of the installation of a heated floor.
Choosing a laying scheme
Keep in mind that the preparation and planning of laying the "warm floor" is made at the stage of filling the subfloor or overhaul, but not in the renovated living space. However, there are cases when the system is still required to be installed in the apartment on a turnkey basis. How to put a warm floor in this case, it is better to consult with a specialist.In general, there are ways to do this, but the technology is very different from the standard.
So let's get started. On the plan of the room or apartment we will mark out the laying scheme, and also the place where the heating cable will be connected. Determine the location of the sensor and thermostat.
When there is fixed furniture or sanitary installations in the room, it is not necessary to heat their areas. Due to this, we will save a significant part of the equipment, and at the time of operation, electricity will be consumed less.
Proper markings prolong the service life of the entire “warm floor” system, because laying should eliminate frequent pressure on the heating elements.
Thermal insulation layer
In order not to heat the rooms on the lower floor, it is better to take care of the heat insulating layer. The fact is that in the heating cable the heat radiates in all directions radially, that is, if the floor is not insulated, almost 30% of the thermal energy will disappear, and the surface of the house will be heated with only the remaining 70%. In case there is a basement or other unheated room under the apartment, the insulating layer is required.
At the same time, experience has shown that when laying a heat-insulated floor on heat-reflecting and heat-insulating materials, it guarantees up to 95% of heat transfer, that is, the savings on energy losses are perfectly obvious. When the floor surface is satisfactorily flat, the heat insulating material is placed directly on it - this is how to lay a warm floor.
Fastening and laying the heating cable
How to lay a warm floor? After all, laying and fixing the cable represent one of the critical moments for him. This process is carried out in two ways: thanks to either a mounting tape or a metal grid. The first is a flexible material with cable clips. On the second cable is fastened with plastic clamps. But it is convenient not only to fix the cable with the required number of fasteners: it provides extra rigidity, prevents the thermal cable from being drowned in the insulation layer and gives extra strength to the cement screed. If the heat-insulating material that you use does not have a heat-reflecting coating, you will have to make this layer yourself, laying a layer of dense aluminum foil on the heat-insulating material.
We will transfer the layout of the sanitary ware and furniture to the floor surface with adhesive tape. The remaining free space will begin to mark for future cable laying. True and detailed markings will provide an opportunity to avoid unnecessary damage to the heated floor when installing furniture and installing plumbing. We act consistently: we remember the locations of the thermostat and sensors. We take into account that laying the cable is not allowed. You will also have to observe the optimal distance between all rows and stack the set evenly.
We mount the cable to the floor
An important point when laying a heated floor is the nominal capacity of the system per 1 sq.m. Given this, the installation of the entire set with a step between the bands, as specified in the instructions. At the beginning of cable laying we check the resistance and integrity of the components. Some companies producing and installing underfloor heating supply the product with the function of memorizing the given shape.
For example, it offers on the cable itself special marks indicating the junction of thermal and electrical cables.This place should be located in the area of the cement screed and be as close as possible to the place where the thermostat will be connected. The distance to the closest wall should be at least 20–30 cm, and the length of the joint should remain straight and not bend over to avoid fractures or cracks of this important node.
We are installing the thermostat system
In any set of "warm floor" there is a thermostat, which is designed at the request of the owners to adjust the heating temperature. Read the instructions and, if necessary, check with the professionals for ambiguities. We make the installation at a height of 80-100 cm from the floor, while fulfilling all the requirements of installation and assembly scheme.
If a thermostat with a floor sensor is installed in the system, some features should be considered during installation. - use it by placing in the cavity of the corrugated tube. This will provide an easy procedure for replacing the sensor; - place the sensor from adjacent cable turns equidistant to ensure maximum fit to the surface of the flooring; - the position of the sensor must be constantly monitored during the process of pouring the floor with cement;
How to fill a warm floor
We test the assembled cable for the presence of the necessary resistance, check the position of the coupling, which should be located in the area of our future tie. The prepared solution is distributed evenly over the surface of the floor, pro. In this case, leveling is carried out only along the rows of the heating cable. The height of the screed is usually 3 - 5 cm. The cement-sand mixture should not form voids. Their presence not only reduces the heat transfer of the system, but also causes local overheating of its elements and disrupts performance.
When the floor is complete, we check the integrity of the cable with an electric tester. Only in the absence of problems leave the coupler at the time of solidification. After solidification, it is covered with flooring - tiled or stone tiles, laminate, linoleum. Be careful: choose a parquet house, laminated parquet or natural flooring with care. It is necessary to compare the permissible heating temperatures with the temperatures of the “warm floor” system.