How did the ancient man live?
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In his development, the man had to go througha few basic stages of evolution. This process began with the oldest man and ended with a reasonable man. Each species had its own characteristics, which were expressed, but not only in the external appearance of people, but also in their everyday life. Now scientists offer different versions, about how the ancient man lived, and about who was the ancestor of the modern individual.
Australopithecus and Man skilled
Evolutionary development of man is divided by scientists intofour stages. The first people on earth were Australopithecus, which was practically the same as the anthropoid apes. They lived in South Asia and South Africa about 5 million to 400 thousand years ago. It is worth noting that Australopithecus already mastered the primitive tools of labor, which were stones and sticks.
However, most scientists in the world do not rankAustralopithecines to human ancestors, because they believe that they are a dead-end branch of evolution. The reason for the appearance of this hypothesis was the discovery of the remains of people in East Africa in 1959, which were closer to man than the Australopithecus. The age of these finds is 12 million years.
As a result, the oldest people lived on earthbegan to be called in the scientific world Homo habilis, that is, the Man skilled. In the light of these events, some scientists began to refer the Man of skill to Australopithecus, while others consider him a separate independent branch. But meanwhile, most scientists agree that this species should be considered an ancestor of modern man.
The next step in the process of human evolutionwere the most ancient people who appeared about 1.9 million years ago and disappeared about 300 thousand years ago. It should be noted that they include the following types of people: Pithecanthropus, Sinanthropus and Heidelberg. But all of the above ancient people are ranked as Homo erectus Homo erectus.
About how and where, ancient people livedenough little. Found primitive tools and remains suggest that they lived in groups or primitive herds. They procured food by hunting and gathering, they have not yet learned how to cultivate the land and tame wild animals. As a dwelling, ancient people used caves and some other suitable shelters. Scientists believe that they communicated with gestures and primitive sounds that were not yet articulate speech.
In place of Homo erectus cameNeanderthals. Their period lasted from 200 to 30 thousand years ago. If we compare them with their predecessors, they were more skilful, they used fire. It was possible to find out that in warm regions they settled along river banks, while in cold regions they settled in caves. As the main type of food for the Neanderthals was hunting. In addition to the meat of dead animals, they also used their skins, making clothes out of them. Since they did not adapt yet to sew it, their clothes were very rough, usually from pieces of skins.
Social relations have also undergone a number ofchanges. Neanderthals cared for those who, for various reasons, could not get their own food. It was their scientists who first met the burials of the dead, which indicates a significant progress in interpersonal relations. The various collective actions that manifested themselves in hunting, caring for children, protecting their villages became of great importance. Due to the complication of social relations, Neanderthals arose articulate speech.
People of a modern type, namely Homo sapiens, thenthere is a reasonable man, arose about 50 thousand years ago. They were called Cro-Magnon people in the place where they found the remains of people of this type, in the French grotto Cromagnon. In appearance, they practically did not differ from modern man. Now you know how ancient people lived. You can also watch the video to fix the material.